This open access book offers a comprehensive overview of the role and potential of microorganisms in the degradation and preservation of cultural materials (e.g. stone, metals, graphic documents, textiles, paintings, glass, etc.). Microorganisms are a major cause of deterioration in cultural artefacts, both in the case of outdoor monuments and archaeological finds. This book covers the microorganisms involved in biodeterioration and control methods used to reduce their impact on cultural artefacts. Additionally, the reader will learn more about how microorganisms can be used for the preservation and protection of cultural artefacts through bio-based and eco-friendly materials. New avenues for developing methods and materials for the conservation of cultural artefacts are discussed, together with concrete advances in terms of sustainability, effectiveness and toxicity, making the book essential reading for anyone interested in microbiology and the preservation of cultural heritage.